Top 10 Foods Highest in Choline
Choline is an essential nutrient necessary for a wide range of functions from cellular maintenance to creating neurotransmitters. A deficiency in choline often appears as an increase in liver enzymes, and can lead to liver disease, heart disease, and even neurological disorders.
Health benefits of adequate choline include a reduced risk of dementia, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.2 Some studies have shown an increased risk of colon cancer with choline supplements, but natural food sources like those listed below are safe and healthy.
A daily value (DV) has not been established for choline, however, the adequate intake (AI) for adult men is 550mg a day for men and 425mg/day for women. High choline foods include liver, eggs, cauliflower, mushrooms, dark leafy greens, shellfish, asparagus, brussels sprouts, bok choy, and fish. For more see the list of high choline foods by nutrient density and the extended list of choline rich foods.
#1: Liver (Beef)Other Liver Products High in Choline (%AI per 100g):
|Choline in 100g||Per Slice (81g)|
|418.2mg (76% AI)||338mg (62% AI)|
Veal (73%), Chicken Liver (59%), and Chicken Liver Pate (42%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.
#2: EggsMost of the choline in eggs is contained in the yolk. Fish roe (eggs) are also a good source of choline providing 9% AI per tablespoon, and 17% AI per ounce. Click to see complete nutrition facts.
|Choline in 100g||1 cup, chopped (136g)||1 large (50g)|
|293.8mg (53% AI)||399.6mg (72% AI)||146.9mg (27% AI)|
#3: Cauliflower (Raw)Broccoli provides 5% AI per cup cooked. Click to see complete nutrition facts.
|Choline in 100g||1 cup chopped (1/2" pieces) (107g)||1 head medium (5-6" dia.) (588g)|
|44.3mg (8% AI)||47.4mg (9% AI)||260.5mg (47% AI)|
#4: Mushrooms (Cooked Shiitake)Other mushrooms high in choline (%AI per cup sliced):
|Choline in 100g||1 cup sliced (97g)||1 piece whole (19g)|
|59.4mg (11% AI)||57.6mg (10% AI)||11.3mg (2% AI)|
Oyster (8%), Portabella (7%), Enoki (6%), Maitake (6%), White Button (4%), and Brown Italian (Crimini) (3%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.
#5: Dark Leafy Greens (Beet Greens, Cooked)Other dark leafy greens high in choline (%AI per cup cooked):
|Choline in 100g||1 cup (1" pieces) (144g)|
|42.5mg (8% AI)||61.2mg (12% AI)|
Collards (14%), Swiss Chard (9%), and Spinach (6%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.
#6: Shellfish (Oysters)Other Shellfish and Crustaceans High in Choline (%AI per 3oz (85g) serving):
|Choline in 100g||3 oz (85g)||6 medium (59g)|
|101mg (18% AI)||85.9mg (15% AI)||59.6mg (11% AI)|
Shrimp (21%), Scallops (17%), Crayfish (13%), Crab (13%), and Lobster (13%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.
#7: Asparagus (Cooked)Click to see complete nutrition facts.
|Choline in 100g||1/2 cup (90g)||4 spears (1/2" base) (60g)|
|26.1mg (5% AI)||23.5mg (5% AI)||15.7mg (3% AI)|
#8: Brussels Sprouts (Cooked)Cooked Cabbage provides 6% AI per cup cooked. Click to see complete nutrition facts.
|Choline in 100g||1/2 cup (78g)||1 sprout (21g)|
|40.6mg (7% AI)||31.7mg (6% AI)||8.5mg (2% AI)|
#9: Cooked Bok Choy (Chinese Cabbage) (Pak-Choi)Click to see complete nutrition facts.
|Choline in 100g||1 cup, shredded (170g)|
|12.1mg (2% AI)||20.6mg (3% AI)|
#10: Fish (Cod)Other fish high in Choline (%AI per 3oz (85g) serving):
|Choline in 100g||3 oz (85g)||1 fillet (90g)|
|79.7mg (14% AI)||67.8mg (12% AI)||71mg (13% AI)|
Salmon (18%), Pollock (14%), Flounder (Sole) (12%), Haddock (12%), Perch (12%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.