Top 10 Cholesterol Lowering FoodsWritten by Daisy Whitbread, MScN
Cholesterol is a steroid lipid (fat) found in the blood and is necessary for proper functioning of cell membranes. Our bodies already manufacture all the cholesterol we need, so it is not necessary to consume more. High levels of cholesterol have been shown to increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Cholesterol-lowering foods should be incorporated into everyone's diet for optimal health. The percentages by which these foods lower cholesterol reflect people who have high levels of cholesterol greater than 200 mg/dL, and therefore have been diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia. Different diets, lifestyles, and foods will work differently for different people.
It is recommended that you buy a Cholesterol Test Kit, so you can monitor your cholesterol levels at home and see which diet and lifestyle work best for you. Cholesterol-lowering foods include oat bran, flax seeds, garlic, almonds, walnuts, whole barley, and green tea. Below is a detailed list of foods which lower bad LDL cholesterol, while leaving the good HDL cholesterol largely unaffected.
#1: Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats (Olive Oil, Canola Oil, Peanut Oil, Peanuts, Olives, Avocados)
Cholesterol Reduction: 18%1,2,37
Substituting saturated animal fats and other high cholesterol foods with healthier fats like olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, and avocados is the most powerful thing you can do to achieve a drastic reduction in your LDL cholesterol. Specifically a diet high in olive andsunflower oil, that contains 12.9% saturated fat, 15.1% monounsaturated fat, and 7.9% polyunsaturated fat can achieve an 18% reduction in LDL cholesterol vs people on a diet higher in saturated fat.1
#2: Bran (Oat, Rice)
Bran, particularly oat bran, has been proven effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels. Add bran to hot cereals and bread.Also, eating whole oatmeal every morning, or switching to whole products like brown rice, can help you get more bran in your diet and lower your cholesterol numbers. Click to see complete nutrition facts for Bran.
#3: Flax Seeds
Cholesterol Reduction: 8-14%6,7
Up to 50 grams of flax seeds a day has been shown to reduce LDL cholesterol in healthy young adults by up to 8%,6 and 38 grams of flax seeds per day reduced LDL cholesterol by 14% in people with high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia).7 In both studies the flax seeds where consumed in a muffin or other bread product. Flax seeds are easily incorporated in baked goods, as well as added to hot cereals like oatmeal.
Click to see complete nutrition facts for Flax Seeds.
Cholesterol Reduction: 9-12%8,9
Studies have shown that less than half a clove (900mg) of raw garlic a day can lower cholesterol by 9-12%.8,9 Raw garlic is best and can be added to olive oil salad dressings, or as a garnish on soups and sandwiches. Click to see complete nutrition facts for Raw Garlic.
Cholesterol Reduction: 7-10%10-12
Several studies report that eating up to half a cup of almonds can reduce cholesterol levels by up to 10%. In a dose response study it wasfound that a quarter cup of almonds reduces cholesterol by 5% and half a cup causes the full 10% reduction.11 As almonds are a high calorie food,it is not recommended that you eat more than half a cup. Almonds are great as a snack, or as an addition to breakfast cereals like oatmeal.
Click to see complete nutrition facts for Almonds.
#6: Lycopene Foods
Cholesterol Reduction: 0-17%13,14
Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment responsible for giving fruits and vegetables their red color and is found in tomatoes, watermelon, andvarious other high lycopene foods. Studies are conflicting asto whether lycopene reduces LDL cholesterol or not. Some studies report a 10-17% reduction13,14 while other studies find no difference.15,16 Despite this difference, lycopene is thought to generally promote heart health whether it lowers LDL cholesterol or not.
#7: Walnuts and Pistachios
Cholesterol Reduction: 10%17-21
Numerous studies report a reduction in cholesterol with consumption of walnuts or pistachios. This is especially true when the fats fromthe nuts replace consumption of other high cholesterol fats. Consuming around 30 grams of walnuts, or having the nuts be about 20-30% of total caloric intake is necessary to achieve the cholesterol lowering benefits.19
Click to see complete nutrition facts for Walnuts and Pistachios.
#8: Whole Barley
Cholesterol Reduction: 7-10%22,23
Like the bran from oats and rice, barley reduces cholesterol, particularly when it is used as a substitute for wheat products.22Barley can easily substitute for wheat in the form of barley noodles, barley flour, or whole pearl barley. Click to see complete nutrition facts for Barley.
#9: Dark Chocolate and Plant Sterols
Cholesterol Reduction: 2-5%24,25
The plant sterols and cocoa flavanols in dark non-milk chocolate have been shown to reduce cholesterol by 2-5%. Further, plant sterols (phytosterols), found in all plants, and particularly plant oils like corn oil and soybean oil have been shown to lower LDL cholesterol by up to 16%.25 However, this reduction is largely due to inhibiting absorption of cholesterol, and would not have a large effect if you consumed little or no cholesterol.
Click to see complete nutrition facts for Dark Chocolate.
#10: Green Tea
Cholesterol Reduction: 2-5%26
Green tea has long been a staple in East Asia where it is believed to wash oil (fat) out of the body. Studies suggest this may be true as green tea can lower cholesterol by 2-5%.26 Green tea without sugar also has few calories (typically less than 10) and can make a great substitute for a variety of beverages. Click to see complete nutrition facts for Green Tea.
More Lifestyle Choices to Lower Cholesterol
- Take Niacin (Vitamin B3) Supplements - Niacin has been shown to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise the level of HDL (good) cholesterol.27,28 The degree to which it lowers LDL cholesterol has not been measured, but one study reports a 20% increase in HDL (good) cholesterol29. There are no studies on the effect of high niacin foods as compared to the supplement. However, it is commonly construed that eating high niacin foods will help lower bad LDL levels while raising good HDL levels.
- Exercise - Studies suggest that regular endurance aerobic exercises (walking, swimming, running) can increase levels of good (HDL) cholesterol which has protective effects on your cardiovascular system. This is especially true for people with low levels of HDL cholesterol.30,31 Further, exercise can enhance the effect of a low cholesterol diet, further lowering levels of bad (LDL) cholesterol.32
- Lose weight to maintain a healthy BMI - Losing weight, particularly belly fat, may help lower LDL cholesterol levels, and will certainly help prevent type II diabetes, a big risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Check your Body Mass Index (BMI) and aim for a BMI between 20-22.
- Become Vegan - Being vegan involves eating only plant foods and avoiding all animal foods such as dairy, meats, seafoods, etc...Veganism has been shown to lower cholesterol numbers as well as triglyceride levels.33 This is especially true for vegan diets that do not contain refined sugars, processed foods, or trans-fats, and consist mostly of high fiber foods like nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
- Reduce Stress - Studies show that mental, emotional, or physchological stress can increase cholesterol levels by 10%.34,35,36 One study in particular found that college students have high cholesterol levels before tests than other times in the semester.35 Another study found that performing a stressful mental activity, like math, increases cholesterol levels.36 To reduce stress in your life try drinking hot tea, yoga, or spending time with friends. Try new things till you find something that works for you.
Recipes to Lower CholesterolAdd bran or flax to any of these recipes to increase their cholesterol lowering potential
- How to Cook Brown Rice
- How to Cook Oatmeal
- How to Cook Rye
- Burghul A Banadoura (Whole Wheat)
- Blackberry Apple Almond Salad
Buy Cholesterol Test Kits from Amazon.comYou do not have to wait for your next doctors appointment to get your cholesterol numbers. You can buy aCholesterol Test Kit to use at home. This saves both time and money, and also gives you faster feedback to know how your lifestyle choices are affecting your cholesterol levels. When you find a diet that works well for you, come back and comment to share your findings with other readers.
Data Sources and References
- Mensink RP, Katan MB. Effect of a diet enriched with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids on levels of low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy women and men. N Engl J Med. 1989 Aug 17;321(7):436-41.
- Penny M Kris-Etherton, Thomas A Pearson, Ying Wan, Rebecca L Hargrove, Kristin Moriarty, Valerie Fishell and Terry D Etherton. High?monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 6, 1009-1015, December 1999
- Robert W. Kirby, M.D., James W. Anderson, M.D., Beverly Sieling, R.D.,E. Douglas Rees, M.D. Oat-bran intake selectively lowers serum lowdensitylipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 824-829, 1981.
- Graeme H McIntosh, Joanna Whyte, Rosemary McArthur, and Paul J Nestel. Barley and wheat foods: influence on plasma cholesterolconcentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 824-829, 1991.
- Maren Hegsted, Marlene M. Windhauser, S. Kay Morrisa, and Susan B. Lester. Stabilized rice bran and oat bran lower cholesterol in humans. Nutrition ResearchVolume 13, Issue 4, April 1993, Pages 387-398
- SC Cunnane, MJ Hamadeh, AC Liede, LU Thompson, TM Wolever and DJ Jenkins. Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 61, 62-68, 1995.
- Bahram H Arjmandi, Dilshad A Khan, Shanil Juma, Melinda L. Drum, Sreevidya Venkatesh, Eugenia Sohn, Lili Wei, and Richard Derman. Whole flaxseed consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women.
- AJ Adler and BJ Holub. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 65, 445-450, 1997
- Stephen Warshafsky, Russell S. Kamer, Steven L. Sivak. Effect of Garlic on Total Serum Cholesterol-A Meta-Analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2004.
- Abbey M., Noakes M., Belling G.B., Nestel, P. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1994;59:995-9.
- David J.A. Jenkins, MD; Cyril W.C. Kendall, PhD; Augustine Marchie, BSc; Tina L. Parker, RD; Philip W. Connelly, PhD; Wei Qian, PhD; James S. Haight, MD; Dorothea Faulkner, RD; Edward Vidgen, BSc; Karen G. Lapsley, DSc; Gene A. Spiller, PhD Dose Response of Almonds on Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors: Blood Lipids, Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins, Lipoprotein(a), Homocysteine, and Pulmonary Nitric Oxide. The American Heart Assoiciation, 2002;106:1327.
- David JA Jenkins, Cyril WC Kendall, Augustine Marchie, Dorothea A Faulkner, Julia MW Wong, Russell de Souza, Azadeh Emam, Tina L Parker, Edward Vidgen, Elke A Trautwein, Karen G Lapsley, Robert G Josse, Lawrence A Leiter, William Singer and Philip W Connelly Direct comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods with a statin in hypercholesterolemic participants. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, February 2005, vol. 81, no. 2, 380-387.
- Karin Ried, Peter Fakler. Protective effect of lycopene on serum cholesterol and blood pressure: Meta-analyses of intervention trials. Volume 68, Issue 4 , Pages 299-310, April 2011
- Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation. British Journal of Nutrition (2007), 98: 1251-1258
- Isabelle A. Hininger, PhD, Anita Meyer-Wenger, PhD, Ulrich Moser, PhD, Anthony Wright, PhD, Susan Southon, PhD, David Thurnham, PhD, Mridula Chopra, PhD, Henk Van Den Berg, PhD, Begona Olmedilla, PhD, Alain E. Favier, PhD, FACN and Anne-Marie Roussel, PhD, FACN. No Significant Effects of Lutein, Lycopene or Beta-Carotene Supplementation on Biological Markers of Oxidative Stress and LDL Oxidizability in Healthy Adult Subjects. J Am Coll Nutr June 2001 vol. 20 no. 3 232-238.
- Lenore Arab and Susan Steck. Lycopene and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 6, 1691S-1695s, June 2000.
- Effects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood pressure in normal men. N Engl J Med. 1993 Mar 4;328(9):603-7.
- M Abbey, M Noakes, GB Belling and PJ Nestel. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 59, 995-999, 1994.
- Including Walnuts in a Low-Fat/Modified-Fat Diet Improves HDL Cholesterol-to-Total Cholesterol Ratios in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.12.2777 Diabetes Care December 2004 vol. 27 no. 12 2777-2783
- Rogelio U Almario, Veraphon Vonghavaravat, Rodney Wong, and Sidika E Kasim-Karakas. Effects of walnut consumption on plasma fatty acids and lipoproteins in combined hyperlipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr July 2001 vol. 74 no. 1 72-79.
- Karen Edwards, MS, Isidore Kwaw, MD, Jose Matud and Ira Kurtz, MD. Effect of Pistachio Nuts on Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Moderate Hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Nutr June 1999 vol. 18 no. 3 229-232
- GH McIntosh, J Whyte, R McArthur and PJ Nestel. Barley and wheat foods: influence on plasma cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr May 1991 vol. 53 no. 5 1205-1209.
- Joanne R Lupton, PhD, Michael Clayton Robinson, MS, RD, Janet L Morin, MS, RD. Cholesterol-lowering effect of barley bran flour and oil. Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 94, Issue 1 , Pages 65-70, January 1994
- Robin R. Allen, LeaAnn Carson, Catherine Kwik-Uribe, Ellen M. Evans, and John W. Erdman, Jr. Daily Consumption of a Dark Chocolate Containing Flavanols and Added Sterol Esters Affects Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Normotensive Population with Elevated Cholesterol. American Society for Nutrition J. Nutr. 138:725-731, April 2008
- Catherine A Vanstone, Mahmoud Raeini-Sarjaz, William E Parsons and Peter JH Jones. Unesterified plant sterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations equivalently in hypercholesterolemic persons. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 76, No. 6, 1272-1278, December 2002
- Tokunaga S, White IR, Frost C, Tanaka K, Kono S, Tokudome S, Akamatsu T, Moriyama T, Zakouji H. Green tea consumption and serum lipids and lipoproteins in a population of healthy workers in Japan. Ann Epidemiol. 2002 Apr;12(3):157-65.
- Pubmed Health Page on Niacin
- Katzung, Bertram G. (2006). Basic and clinical pharmacology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division. ISBN 0071451536.
- Allen J. Taylor, MD; Lance E. Sullenberger, MD; Hyun J. Lee, BS; Jeannie K. Lee, PharmD; Karen A. Grace, PharmD. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Extended-Release Niacin on Atherosclerosis Progression in Secondary Prevention Patients Treated With Statins. American Heart Association Journal. Circulation.2004; 110: 3512-3517 Published online before print November 10, 2004, doi: 10.1161/?01.CIR.0000148955.19792.8D.
- Mark A. Kantora, Eileen M. Cullinanea, Stanley P. Sadya, Peter N. Herberta, Paul D. Thompson.Exercise acutely increases high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lipoprotein lipase activity in trained and untrained men. Metabolism Volume 36, Issue 2, February 1987, Pages 188-1922001; 21: 1226-1232
- Effects of Endurance Exercise Training on Plasma HDL Cholesterol Levels Depend on Levels of Triglycerides. American Heart Association Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.
- Marcia L. Stefanick, Ph.D., Sally Mackey, M.S., R.D., Mary Sheehan, M.S., Nancy Ellsworth, William L. Haskell, Ph.D., and Peter D. Wood, D.Sc., Ph.D. Effects of Diet and Exercise in Men and Postmenopausal Women with Low Levels of HDL Cholesterol and High Levels of LDL Cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:12-20July 2, 1998.
- Resnicow K, Barone J, Engle A, Miller S, Haley NJ, Fleming D, Wynder E. Diet and serum lipids in vegan vegetarians: a model for risk reduction. J Am Diet Assoc. 1991 Apr;91(4):447-53.
- P. T. Wertlake, A. A. Wilcox, M. I. Haley and J. E. Peterson. Relationship of Mental and Emotional Stress to Serum Cholesterol Levels. doi: 10.3181/00379727-97-23676 Exp Biol Med January 1958 vol. 97 no. 1 163-165
- Caroline Bedell Thomas, M.D., Edmond A. Murphy, M.D. Further studies on cholesterol levels in the Johns Hopkins medical students: The effect of stress at examinations. From the Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. USA Received 5 September 1958. Available online 23 March 2004.
- Matthew F. Muldoon, MD; Elizabeth A. Bachen, MA; Stephen B. Manuck, PhD; Shari R. Waldstein, MS; Patricia L. Bricker, MSN; Jill A. Bennett. Acute Cholesterol Responses to Mental Stress and Change in Posture. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(4):775-780.
- B E McDonald, J M Gerrard, V M Bruce, and E J Corner. Comparison of the effect of canola oil and sunflower oil on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and on in vivo thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin production in healthy young men. Am J Clin Nutr December 1989 vol. 50 no. 6 1382-1388.